Binaural beats occur when two separate carrier tones with slightly different frequencies are played in each ear.
For example, let's say you listen to a sound with a frequency of 200 Hz in the left ear and another sound with a frequency of 210 Hz in the right ear.
Your mind combines and interprets these two tones into a single sound (or "amplitude modulated standing wave") which you can "hear" in your mind only. You'll know it's a binaural beat because it has a distinctive pulsing sound, with a "wah-wah" sound or rhythm.
If you really want to be sure that you’re listening to binaural-beats, one way is to remove one of the headphones, leaving the other earphone on.
You’ll notice that the "wah-wah" sound goes away leaving behind a flat sound. Bring the earphone back and the "wah-wah" sound comes back too.
Now, remember that you actually only "perceive" the combined beats in your mind only. The human ear can only hear between 20 to 20,000 Hz, so obviously, you won’t be able to hear a tone with a frequency of only 10 Hz!
Anyway, the net result is that your brain waves will "entrain" to the frequency of the binaural beats.
This is actually one of the easiest ways of actually slowing down your brainwave patterns to achieve whatever brain wave state you want. It doesn’t matter what frequency you use, what’s more important is the frequency difference between the two tones.